Count down to Christmas with an Arduino-powered Hackvent calendar

3 days 6 hours ago

Along with the typical Christmas decorations of trees and elves sitting on shelves, Tom Goff was motivated to build a DIY “Hackvent” calendar after being inspired by his son’s request for one. The project differs from the traditional Advent calendar in that it features an array of two dozen colored lights — one for December 1st to 24th […]

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Arduino Team

Droptica: How to Create a Website Menu and Footer and Add a Favicon in Droopler

3 days 8 hours ago

On our blog, you can find many posts introducing you to the world of Droopler, which show how to build a showcase website in a simple and transparent way. In this article, however, we'll deal with one of the most important things on this type of webpage: menu, footer, and favicon. They are like the three musketeers and neither of them should ever be taken lightly. Why?

Importance of a website menu, footer and favicon

From the point of view of our system, these elements in an abstract sense have a completely different meaning and we handle each of them differently.


If we need to change the direction of travel on a highway, we have to use a crossing in the form of an overpass. It's no different on the web. When we want to edit a post or go back to the home page, we click the appropriate link. Our menu is the main element that creates traffic.

Footer and favicon

This element is often overlooked by web developers, but it shouldn't be. An intuitive footer can make the user stay on your website. Why? Anyone who isn't particularly interested in the content on your page will scroll down until they hit the footer. This is the moment when the user can either change the tab in the browser or stay on your page by clicking the appropriate link in the menu. A footer may also contain other interesting elements, such as a map, contact details or a form to enter your message.

If you see a small grey globe on the tab next to the page name, it means that the favicon is missing. It's a small image that identifies a given page and tells the user what's in a given tab.

Adding new website elements in Droopler

Drupal is a good CMS offering a really great foundation for setting a page up. However, if we want more than just static content, we need to install additional modules. Considering that each module deals with a single issue, it's easy to get lost. Droopler is a preconfigured Drupal distribution which will allow us to concentrate on adding the content only, as it already contains all the necessary extensions. Thanks to this, a beginner without much technical knowledge can build a simple and functional website.

We can set almost anything on the user interface side. Due to the fact that everyone has their own requirements, e.g. regarding the footer's look, it often depends on the JS and CSS code added separately by the module or theme. Thanks to using Droopler, we don't have to worry about additional configuration, and the process of adding our own styles is easy.

However, to enrich the footer with our own content, we need to obtain some theoretical knowledge. How is the content displayed? There are several ways (a block, a paragraph, a content page) and each of them has its own unique purpose. A block will be the most important one for us.


When we want to add an element with a specific purpose to a website (e.g. a Google map), we are dealing with a block.

How to add a block type?

A block type can be added in two ways – via a custom module or the user interface. We'll focus on the latter, easier method.

1. In the admin bar, we select the Structure -> Block layout -> Block types option, then in the /admin/structure/block/block-content/types tab we click the + Add custom block type button.

2. At this stage, we set a label for a given type of block, thanks to which we'll find it on the list, and a description that explains what this block is for. The revision option allows us to see a preview of the block type edit history.

3. We may proceed to add the preferred fields for our block type. We'll make a template which will contain a text field of the text plain type.

4. In the Manage form display tab, it's possible to set the basic parameters of the form fields, as well as the way they are displayed.

Manage display is used to set the default order of the content contained in the fields, to set the display of the field title or the way of rendering the content.

After it's saved correctly, we'll be redirected to the page with the block types.

How to create a block?

When we have a block type ready, we can create a block from it.

1. In the admin bar, we go to Structure -> Block layout -> Add custom block


2. Then we select our block type from the list:


3. After selecting the block type, we complete its fields, defined earlier in the block type in the Fields tab.


4. As we can see, our block was created in the next subsection. When filling out the form, we'll add it to the region:


  • Display title – determines whether the title of the block is to be displayed.
  • Content type tab – determines in which types of content this block is to be shown.
  • Pages tab – allows defining the block presence on specific subpages. In the case of using this tab, one of the options should be selected – show on specific subpages/hide on specific subpages. From the description, we can see that it's possible to add not only the paths of specific directories, but also the aliases of the of subpages of the type or using the * notation which stands for every string of characters.
  • Roles tab – allows determining for which user roles a given block is visible.
  • Region – select the region in which the block should appear. The region for which we wanted to add a block at the beginning is selected.

5. Once successfully added, Drupal will send us to the region list.

We have the block type and the block itself ready. We've already added the block to the region, but we don't know what it is yet.


The block needs to know where we want to use it. In Drupal, this is determined by the regions – the places that we could define as containers. Thanks to them, our project obtains an orderly pattern.

1. To add a preconfigured block to our region we need to go to the Structure -> Block layout tab first.


2. We should see a list similar to this one:


Now we need to find the appropriate region for us. If we want to see the current regions and their layout, the link in the screenshot below may be helpful.


3. Once we know which region we want to add our block to, we click the Place block button next to its title. A list of ready blocks will appear. However, if we want to create another block, we can add it to the system by clicking Structure -> Block layout -> Add custom block in the admin bar (the same way as we did above) or by clicking Add custom block. In the case of selecting an existing block, we'll get a form for adding the block to the region (the last screen of the block adding process).


After adding the block to the region, we'll be redirected to the region list.


4. Everything is ready! We can check on the page if the given block is in the correct region.

Adding a footer

The footer on our website will be a collection of as many as 7 regions – six on the grid and the main one. If one of them won't be used, it won't be rendered on the page, so we don't have to worry that the other ones will be disturbed. Thanks to this approach, we have various possibilities of nesting the blocks and as we know, with a little effort a block can present content in many different ways.

Adding a menu

A menu is a special block. Its main configuration is based on the links that can be nested. Then we add it to the region just like any other block. Thanks to this, we can create thematic menus that'll organize our navigation in a way that is understandable for the user.

1. We start by entering the appropriate form via the admin bar – Structure -> Menus -> Add menu.


2. The title field is required, so we determine a name that'll help us figure out what's in this menu.

3. We can add our links by clicking the “+ Add link” button.

4. The link form allows us to set and save the most important information such as:

  • link title,
  • link address,
  • link weight corresponding to its place on the list,
  • description,
  • visibility,
  • in which menu the link should be placed.

5. After adding the link, we're sent back to the menu.

6. Since the menu is such a special block, and we add the block to the region, then... let's add the menu to the selected region! We can choose different locations, but in our case it'll be the footer.


7. The effect should be visible at the bottom of the website:


In order to quickly configure the menu on a website, Droopler comes with the Drupal Mega Menu module, which we can use to fully customize our menu.

1. We go to Structure -> Drupal 8 Mega Menu.


2. We choose the already composed menu from the list.


3. In the panel, we can add the things necessary for us. Do we want an icon next to a link? Not a problem! Or maybe we want to add a CSS class? Simply enter it in the appropriate field for a given link. We'll also find a checkbox that'll allow us to define where a given link should be opened.

Adding a favicon

We can find the option of adding a favicon in Droopler in the Droopler Subtheme theme settings.

We simply have to specify the path to our favicon file in the Favicon area or – if we don't have access to the server – upload the file via the interface.

Adding a website menu, footer and favicon – summary

This guide aims to show you the abilities of Drupal using Droopler. It's worth keeping in mind that the list of options is very long. However, you can learn about them gradually after installing Droopler.

I recommend that you familiarize yourself with the Paragraphs module, also available in this Drupal distribution. Thanks to it, our website, in addition to having a favicon and appropriate navigation, will be rich in attractively presented content.


OpenSense Labs: Fully decoupled Drupal vs Progressively decoupled Drupal

3 days 14 hours ago
Fully decoupled Drupal vs Progressively decoupled Drupal Maitreayee Bora Fri, 12/03/2021 - 15:48

Let me ask you a question today. Do you think the only major role of a website is to create content for its users? Well I think it shouldn’t be only restricted to content creation rather it should take the responsibility of delivering content in a user-friendly manner across various devices. Hence, most of the organizations are seen preferring the decoupled ap​​proach and opting for a well-built content store in Drupal. So, depending on various preferences and requirements there are two approaches for decoupling Drupal such as progressively decoupled, and fully decoupled. This article will help you in gaining much better insight upon these two approaches for decoupling Drupal.

Fully decoupled Drupal

Fully decoupled Drupal refers to full separation of concerns between the presentation layer and all other aspects of the CMS. In this approach, the CMS becomes a data provider, and a JavaScript application or static site generator communicates with Drupal through web service APIs. More on the use cases of CMS and static site generators here. Even though there is unavailability of key functionality like in-place editing and layout management, fully decoupled Drupal can be a good option for developers who tend to look for better control across the front end and who are experienced already well experienced with building applications in frameworks such as Angular, React, Gatsby etc.

Fully decoupled Drupal is executed in two different ways, namely Fully decoupled app and Fully decoupled static site. 

Fully decoupled app

Fully decoupled applications use frameworks such as Angular, React, Vue.js during the decoupling process and are written in JavaScript. 


Source: W3Techs

Started in 2013, React is a JavaScript library which is used to create interactive user interfaces (UIs). Started in 2013, React is a JavaScript library which is used to create interactive user interfaces (UIs). Proven as one of the most powerful and highly used front-end technologies, it is maintained and supported by the tech giant Facebook. It can split the codes into components to further enable developers with code reusability and fast debugging. Because of its declarative style and lack of assumptions about technology stack, it has succeeded in gaining popularity as well. Within the last few years, a large ecosystem has grown around React. It consists of high-quality libraries, conferences, and rapidly growing demand for developers with React skills. Some of the well-known websites and web applications that use React as front-end technology include BBC, New York Times, Facebook, Reddit and Airbnb etc. 

The combination of React and Drupal enables creating extraordinary digital experiences. Also, the one-way data flow of React allows shaping the web page as per the data which is sent from Drupal's RESTful API. Read more about the combination of Drupal and react here. 


Source: W3Techs

AngularJS can be considered as a lightweight and concise framework that is fully extensible and enables you to try some interesting things with your site. This framework extends HTML to define user interfaces, moreover helping you to build interactive web applications that are highly functional and difficult to break. With AngularJS, reusable components can be created and because of its client-side nature, all types of cyber-attacks can be restricted. It executes the MVC (Model-View-Controller) framework enabling faster development process, multiple views, asynchronous technique, SEO friendly development and many more needful features. AngularJS holds an exciting functionality like a two-way data binding that helps user actions to instantly trigger application objects and vice-versa, also facilitating with an extremely interactive framework. 

It gets support from a huge community and is maintained by the tech giant Google. Paypal, Gmail and The Guardian can be seen using Angular as the front end technology.

The powerful combination of Angular with Drupal will enable you to move display logic to the client-side and streamline your backend, therefore resulting in a speedy website. Also, you will find that HTML always stays on demand due to its simplicity and clarity in the code structure, and Angular makes proper use of HTML to define user interfaces, hence allowing companies organizations to build interactive web applications that are highly functional. Read more about the combination of Drupal and angular here.


Source: W3Techs

Vue.js is a JavaScript framework which is extremely popular for developing interactive applications. It provides data-reactive components with a simple and flexible API. Also, this framework can be used as a library to add interactive elements/blocks to the existing sites. With Vue.js you will be able to deliver a significant boost to user experiences. 

The combination of Drupal and Vue allows developers to smoothly request and store Drupal content as data objects via the official Vue-Resource plugin. Additionally, while combining with Vue, Drupal is enabled to show its magic at the back-end while the attractive features of Vue look after the client-side. Along with such specialties, Vue’s component system is one of the strongest features which allows large-scale application building, including small and self-contained reusable components. Read more about the combination of Drupal and Vue here.

Fully decoupled static site

Fully decoupled static sites help in improving performance, security, and reduce the complexity for developers. A static site generator like Gatsby enables in retrieving content from Drupal, generating a static website, and deploying that static site to a CDN, usually through a specific cloud provider such as Netlify. Apart from Gatsby, the fully decoupled static site also uses the Metalsmith framework.


Source: W3Techs

Gatsby can be considered as an open-source and modern website framework that enhances the website’s site's performance by leveraging the latest web technologies such as React and GraphQL. It can be used in building blazing-fast applications and websites. Gatsby uses powerful pre-configuration to build a website that only uses static files for incredibly fast page loads, service workers, code splitting, etc.

By using Drupal with Gatsby an organization’s high-quality CMS can be built completely for free, paired with great modern development experience. This framework provides all the benefits of the JAMstack, like performance, scalability, and security. Additionally, it also can-do fireworks by pre-generating all the pages of the site, unlike dynamic sites that render pages on-demand, hence reducing the necessity for live database querying. As a result, performance is enhanced and overheads happen to reduce leading to lesser maintenance cost. Read more about the combination of Drupal and Gatsby here.


Metalsmith is an easy, pluggable static site generator which supports a wide array of templates and data format options. It offers a simple plug-in architecture and very smoothly can get started. Moreover, it uses a modular structure and its lightweight nature and lesser dependencies tend to make it a great solution. 

The combination of both Metalsmith and Drupal proves to be very beneficial because of Drupal’s spectacular backend that can be used to feed data to all kinds of clients and Metalsmith’s exceptional capabilities as a static site generator. Besides Drupal’s great proficiency in content governance, Metalsmith happens to be a great solution for building static sites. Read more about the combination of Drupal and metalsmith here.

Progressively decoupled Drupal

Progressively decoupled Drupal can be considered as an architectural approach which enables the website editors to leverage the administrative interfaces, content workflows, and all other traditional methodologies of creating, editing, and publishing content through Drupal.

It provides a proper balance between the editorial and developer requirements, by enabling editors and website assemblers for contextualized interfaces, content workflow, website preview and also other significant features to remain integrated with Drupal. Also, the frontend developers are allocated a portion of the page to include the frontend framework of their choosing, React, Angular, or Gatsby by this architectural approach. This process indeed helps the front-end developers by removing the restrictions of Drupal’s templating system. 

Read more about progressively decoupled Drupal here.

Learn more about Decoupled Drupal here:


I hope you now got familiarized with both the decoupled approaches clearly. You can surely make the right decision and opt for the necessary approach that your project requires. But still let me tell you that it won’t be beneficial to choose the fully decoupled approach if your project reflects editorial requirements. Likewise, if your project needs are solely of a developers’, then progressively decoupling won’t be beneficial. So, you will have to be very careful in making the right move towards the decoupled approaches. Well, OSL can be your savior. Our expert Drupal teams can enable your organization to assess your present architecture, and recognize which decoupled approach is suitable for you. After assessment our team work to establish a complete decoupled Drupal architecture, depending on your business needs and requirements.

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Promet Source: How to Use Tailwind CSS in Drupal for Atomic Web Design

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